Glossary of Terms

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Glossary of Terms
Activities of Daily Living (ADL)

Daily tasks necessary to care of oneself such as dressing or eating.

Adaptations

Modifications of the delivery of instruction or materials used with a student. 

Adaptive behavior

A collection of skills learned in order to function in everyday life. It is usually measured by scales that identify how well a person manages within his or her own environment. 

Adequate yearly progress (AYP)

As specified in No Child Left Behind, all children need to test as proficient on state test of math, reading, and science by the year 2014. In the meantime, the gains the school must make between now and 2014 are broken up into equal increments for each group and measured accordingly. These groups are (1) school as a whole, (2) children with disabilities, (3) children learning English, (4) minority children, and (5) children from low-income families

Administrative review

A way of resolving special education issues by having supervisory personnel within the local school district or state review what has been done by the MDT. 

Adverse educational impact

In order to qualify for special education services, a student must have a disability that interferes with some aspect of learning. 

Advocate

An individual who is not an attorney, but who assists parents and children in their dealings with school districts regarding the children's special education programs. 

Alternate Standard Educational Program

Any of numerous options which can exist within a school's curriculum which do not involve students' being served in a special education class. For example, a school might have an intensive remedial program, a vocation program, etc. 

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

Federal legislation that gives Civil Rights protection to individuals with disabilities; enacted into law July 1990.

Annual Goal

A measurable outcome written in the IEP (along with related short term objectives) for each area of identified need that the student can reasonably achieve in one year by meeting each of the related short term objectives. Progress toward meeting the objectives related to each annual goal must be documented and shared with parents at least quarterly.

Annual Review

Meeting of the IEP Team held at least annually to review a child's progress and to develop and use an IEP, including goals, objectives and services, to determine appropriate placement for the next year.

Appeal

A written request to change a decision or the act of making a request to change a decision.

Assessment

A collecting and bringing together of information about a child's learning needs; a process using formal and informal methods to determine an individual's strengths and weaknesses to plan, for example, his or her educational services. 

Assistive technology (AT)

An item, piece of equipment, or product system purchased commercially, modified or customized and used to increase, maintain or improve functional capabilities of students with disabilities; also, services that assist students in selecting, acquiring, and using devices.